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Aquarium Fish International 2011 Article Index

Use our annual reference guide to find any article in the 2011 editions of Aquarium Fish International magazine.

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Feature Articles

Farming Damsels: These hardy damselfish cultivate and defend their algae farms. Scott W. Michael.

Five African Catfish: There are many species of nocturnal Synodontis catfish that fare well in aquariums and are popular with fishkeepers. David Sands, Ph.D.

William T. Innes: The Aquarium Life: Modern aquarists will enjoy this intimate stroll down memory lane with the grandson of the “Dean of American Aquarists” William T. Innes. William Innes Homer, Ph.D.

Captive-Bred Versus Wild-Caught Marine Fish: The choice may seem obvious, but there are a lot of factors at play between tank-raised and collected specimens. Stephen Bitter.

Pachypanchax Killifish: Pachypanchax are suitable for a small, species-specific aquarium, where they may even breed. Paul V. Loiselle, Ph.D.

A Moray for the Brackish Set: Gymnothorax tile, commonly known as the “freshwater moray eel,” is actually a brackish species. David A. Lass.

Tiny Coral Corrals: Most of these coral types are perfect for nano tanks, but a few aren’t. Dan Theisen.

Rosy and Cherry Barbs: These loose shoalers come in a variety of colors and fin types, and they are not picky about their water. David A. Lass.

Zooplankton-Feeding Wrasses: Learn how your zooplankton-feeding wrasses eat and what you should feed them in your aquarium. Scott W. Michael.

Breeding White Clouds: White clouds are great egglaying species for first-timers and seasoned breeders alike. Jeffrey C. Howe.

Managing Mycobacteriosis: Mycobacteriosis is a tough disease to fight, but here are some helpful hints for dealing with it. Diana Walstad.

Rethinking the Way You Feed Your Fish: Two experts use their wealth of knowledge and experience to offer alternatives that buck convention when it comes to feeding fish. By David A. Lass and Michael J. Massie.

Aquatic Mosses: The bryophytes are attractive, easy and beneficial “plants” to add to your aquarium. Rus Wilson.

Asian Biotopes: When setting up an Asian biotope, you have many different fish, plants and habitats to choose from.

100 Years of the Brooklyn Aquarium Society: Here’s a brief overview of the 100-year-old Brooklyn Aquarium Society and its influences on the hobby. John Todaro.

A Fresh Start: Become a personal chef to your fish by cultivating any of these 16 delicious and nutritious live foods at home. Stephen G. Noble.

Spawning Theraps wesseli: This secretive cichlid will breed in aquaria — but watch out, as they spawn in a violent fashion. Dan Woodland.

Finding Their Level: Learn what it takes to accommodate fish at the top, middle and bottom levels of your freshwater tank. Gary Elson.

Unicorns of the Fish World: The surgeonfishes of the Naso genus are interesting fish with a “unicornlike” head growth. Scott W. Michael.

Stingrays de America del Sur: Before keeping a freshwater stingray in the Potamotrygon genus, find out if you have what it takes. David Hoffman.

Community Means Compatibility: Think about these six categories of fish care and behavior before deciding whether to buy a fish. Miller Morgan.

My Fishing Expedition to China: With its Ornamental Fish Science and Technology Park nearing completion, Tianjin is poised to take its place as one of China’s largest ornamental fish trade centers. Clay Jackson.

Water Motion: Learn how water motion should work in your reef tank and other setups. Richard Harker.

Five Brackish Fish Every Aquarist Should Keep: Freshwater fishkeepers can keep these five great fish, and they don’t require a large aquarium. Stephen G. Noble.

Freshwater Sharks: These freshwater “sharks” are sharklike in shape but not behavior — they can actually be peaceful tankmates. Mike Wickham.

The Dragon’s Lair: Novaculichthys taeniourus is one of those saltwater fish with a big personality. Scott W. Michael.

Breed Something Out of the Ordinary! Follow these six simple steps to keep and breed some species that are not so frequently spawned. Mike Hellweg.

Three Treatments for Fish Diseases: Salt, copper and antibiotics are three potential treatment options for fish diseases. Mark Mitchell, D.V.M., Ph.D.

Foam Aquascaping: The use of polyurethane foam in marine aquariums is catching on. Bob Goemans.

Aquariumkeeping and the Law: Before purchasing animals for your aquarium, make sure you know the laws. Jay Hemdal.

Garlic: More than an Appetite Stimulant: Many fishkeepers swear by the use of garlic, but the healing powers of its active chemical have not yet been proven. Brian Robinson.

Focus on the Dragonfish: Hobbyists in the United States cannot yet keep intriguing dragonfish, but will that change in the future? John Dawes.

Don’t Damn the Torpedoes: There are some new torpedo tilefishes (Hoplolatilus spp.) coming into the hobby — here is how to care for them. Scott W. Michael.

A Look at Indian Glassfish: These little see-through fish can be kept in fresh or brackish water. Iggy Tavares, Ph.D.

America’s Own Livebearer: Meet three livebearers that aquarists can collect from their own backyards and can keep. Bill Allen.

Protein Skimming: Duplicating Mother Nature: For modern reef systems, the benefits of protein skimming are hard to refute. Bob Goemans.

A Quick Look at Fishkeeping in Brazil: From north to south, Brazil is one country where the hobby is thriving. Oliver Lucanus.

Time to Appreciate the Convict Tang: Acanthurus triostegus is one of the best surgeonfishes to keep, but its muted look stands in the way of its rise to popularity. Jeremy Gosnell.

Live Rock Party Crashers: What comes in with your live rock may be good, bad or just ugly, but what you find is sure to surprise. Julian Sprung.

Yellow-Headed Jawfish: Opistognathus aurifrons has been a staple in marine aquariums for 60 years. Bob Fenner.

Guide to Freshwater Hitchhikers: The Benign, The Bad, The Bizarre: If you spot hitchhikers in your tank, don’t panic — there are ways to keep them under control. Rus Wilson.

Amazon Leporinus: Learn how to distinguish between the Leporinus species that are occasionally available in local fish stores. Stephen G. Noble.

Nano-Reef Aquariums: Part 1: When it comes to reef aquariums, bigger is not always better. Scott W. Michael.

Not So Neon: While false and black neon tetras aren’t as popular as their neon tetra cousins, they make great aquarium residents. Mike Wickham.

Two Apistogramma Breeding Projects: Breeding these colorful inhabitants of South American flood pools should be left to experienced aquarists. Radek Bednarczuk.

Educating the Next Fishkeepers: The Lyons Fish Finatics, a middle school fish club in Iowa, teaches students about fishkeeping, nature and discipline. Cassandra Radcliff.

Silvertip Tetras: With their own planted tank, silvertip tetras will brighten up and prosper. David A. Lass.

Why Water Chemistry Is Vital: This quick primer will help you easily understand the basics of water chemistry parameters. Ed Mackey, MS, Ph.D.

Macroalgae Forests:The “seasonal” color displays in a macroalgae setup might even make reef hobbyists envious. Jon Olav Bjorndal.

Utilitarianism Fishkeeping: Hobbyists can breed the endangered Xiphophorus couchianus (and other threatened fish) and help educated fellow hobbyists while improving fish numbers. Gary Elson.

Nano-Reef Aquariums: Part 2: Here are some tips to help you have better success with your nano-reef aquarium. Scott W. Michael.

Three Aquarium Mormyrids: These intelligent fish with electrical capabilities are for advanced hobbyists looking to add interest and challenge to their hobby. Iggy Tavares, Ph.D.

Ripariums: A New Type of Planted Tank: Fish and marginal aquatic plants come together perfectly in these creative, beautiful setups. Devin Biggs.

Keep Your Cool With a Pacific Aquarium: Get ready for a more challenging tank with coolwater Pacific species from the California coast. Bob Fenner.

The Moonlight Gourami’s Understated Beauty: These gouramis are a sight to see once in a display tank. David A. Lass.

NEC Convention: Check out some of the hobbyists who attended the 36th annual Northeast Council of Aquarium Societies Convention. Clay Jackson.

Reading Fish Body Language: Learn to interpret what your fish may be telling you. Jonathan E. Freedman, Ph.D.

Battery Backup for Aquariums: Battery backups are good insurance for power outages, but how should you choose one for your aquarium? Leslie R. Morris.

Make Your Own Aquarium Divider: It’s easy to make an opaque DIY aquarium divider water can flow through. Stephen G. Noble.

Diagnosing Dropsy: Learn to recognize whether your fish have dropsy or some other malady. Mary E. Sweeney.

Giant Clam Basics: Tridacnids are beautiful and don’t often need to be fed — isn’t it time you add one to your reef? Barry Neigut.

How to Prevent Fry-Eating: When it comes to keeping angelfish and discus from eating eggs and fry, it’s all about the habitat. Don Scheer.

Reef Invert Rumors: Are the bad reputations of these four reef inverts merely fiction, or do they deserve their bum raps? Scott W. Michael.

Five Killifish Breeding Projects: Try the challenge of breeding a killie from just about every continent. Mike Hellweg.

Breeding and Raising Marines: To breed marine fish (and shrimp), the biggest difficulty is feeding larvae — here’s how you do it. Tim Hayes.

America’s Family Pet Expo: The AFPE adds a new element with the debut of the “Aquatic Experience,” in the hopes of engendering new interest in aquariumkeeping among children and families. Clay Jackson.

Fishkeeping Fixes: The best way to deal with common problems is to prevent them from ever showing up. Miller Morgan.

Fireworks in the Night: Simple and complex marine animals light up their world (and maybe even your aquarium) with bioluminescence. James B. Wood, Ph.D., and Kim Zeeh.

Freshwater Nest-Builders: You may be surprised at how many different types of nests are made by freshwater fish. Mike Wickham.

Common Freshwater Fish Diseases: Aquarists need to be aware of the symptoms, diseases and remedies for the most common fish maladies. Jeffrey C. Howe.

Behemoth Reef Fish: The larger fish available to marine aquarists should only be kept in massive aquariums. Scott W. Michael.

Aquarium Enlightenment: Selecting the appropriate lights depends on your aquarium type. David A. Lass.

Fight Your Reef’s Power Meter: Conserve energy in your setup, and you can save money and potentially your reef. Scott Vallembois.

All-Star Asteroids: A guide for picking the best and avoiding the worst sea stars for your setup. Bob Fenner.

Breeding Freshwater Angelfish: Get some helpful insight on breeding these popular beauties. Don Mahanay.

A Beginner’s Guide to Seahorses: Before you try keeping seahorses, learn their basic care requirements to ensure your success. Richard Rayl.

The Snapping Shrimp: Learn how to care for and perhaps sneak a peek at the cryptic snapping shrimp in your aquarium. Scott W. Michael.

A Dozen Delightful Danios: Danios are not just for beginners — there are species available for more experienced fishkeepers. Mike Hellweg.

MACNA: A Retrospective: Take a walk down memory lane for some highlights of past MACNAs. Stephen Pro and John Dawe.

Focus on Sponges: Find out how to take care of sponges in aquariums and learn about nine sponges available in the trade. John Dawes.

Going to Pieces: These six methods of soft coral fragging won’t lead to a nervous breakdown. Dan Theisen.

The Hobby in Germany: We’ve all visited our local fish stores, but how do they compare to those in Germany? Oliver Lucanus.

Water Testing Made Easy: Testing your aquarium water shouldn’t be intimidating — it’s easier than you may think. David A. Lass.

Clownfish Anemones: Here are eight anemone species that are suitable as clownfish hosts in aquaria and some corals, too. Scott W. Michael.

See You at Reef-A-Palooza 2011: With a new website and new attractions for attendees, Reef-A-Palooza 2011 looks to best its own record-setting attendance from 2010. Clay Jackson.

Swimming Spaces: Follow these steps to more accurately estimate the swimming space needs of your aquarium fish. Jay Hemdal.

Fuges for Feeding Planktivores: Use these foods and techniques for keeping the bellies of predominantly plankton-feeding fish full. Bob Fenner.

Planted Tanks for the Budget-Conscious: Go easy on your wallet with these simple, beautiful and natural planted tank ideas. Diana Walstad

“Tanked”: Reality TV for Aquarists: The Animal Planet program “Tanked” promises to inspire, educate and entertain aquarists of all ages and experience levels. Clay Jackson.

Identifying a Plant Hitchhiker: Learn about the aquatic moth and how to deal with it if you find a larva in your aquarium. Cassandra Radcliff.

Going Dutch: Discover the beauty of a Dutch-style planted tank. Stephen G. Noble

Out-of-the-Ordinary Reef Fish: Shrimpfishes, ghost pipefishes and sea moths are striking syngnathid fishes that are reef-safe. Scott W. Michael.

Some Lesser-Known African Characins: Get to know some interesting African tetras, and create a tank dedicated to them. Oliver Lucanus.

Only the Best for Bettas: For betta success, chose the best Betta splendens specimen and keep it in an appropriate tank. Bob Fenner.

Dry-Start Method: Get your plants ready for their new aquatic home by starting them emersed. Tom Barr.

Let Your Reef Shine: Here are eight creative ways to light your reef tank and your prized reef specimens. Adam Blundell, M.S.

Freshwater Q&A
By Mike Wickham. Questions and answers about keeping freshwater fish.

January — A mystery “cichlid” could be a Lepomis sunfish; keeping koi in aquariums
February — Safe tankmates for needlefish (Xenentodon cancila); which catfish can crossbreed
March — How to make oscars less shy, why cichlids may lock lips
April — About toadfish and frogfish
May — Dojo loaches do well in peaceful communities; breeding cichlids may be too territorial for tankmates
June — An aggressive female betta could be a short-finned male; information about electric yellow labs
July — Why most aquarists shouldn’t keep Chinese hi-fin banded sharks and iridescent sharks
August — Why you shouldn’t keep Prochilodus species and some better alternatives; coolwater algae-eaters
September — Why you should avoid the starlet (Acipenser ruthenus) in the aquarium; how to breed different types of snails
October — Bullies in cichlid communities; breeding green-spotted pufferfish (Tetraodon nigroviridis and T. fluviatilis)
November — It is possible to create a new guppy strain; how to clear up a cloudy eye
December — Inverts suitable for a Lake Malawi mbuna tank; if it’s possible to keep several male bettas in a really large aquarium; pairing up convict cichlids

The Aquabotanist
By Stephen G. Noble. Questions and answers about aquatic plants and planted tanks, along with a plant Species Profile each month.

January — Plants compatible with goldfish; how many pounds of Fluorite needed for a planted tank; Echinodorus bleheri ‘Compacta’ plant profile
February — Planted tadpole tanks; plants for tall tanks; what tiny bubbles in planted tanks mean; Nesaea sp. ‘Red’ plant profile
March — Tips for quarantining plants; can lead weights be used in aquariums; X Echinodorus ‘Tanzende feuerfeder’ plant profile
April — Mini Vallisneria can grow large; undergravel filter use in planted tanks; Echinodorus ‘Indian Red’ plant profile
May — Growing Java ferns out of water; DIY carbon dioxide containers; Anubias barteri x congenis plant profile
June — Adding carbon dioxide can make a noticeable difference in plants; how to keep two kinds of substrate from mixing; Java moss (Vesicularia dubyana) plant profile
July — Duckweed and goldfish; daylight versus full-spectrum lighting; Spatterdock (Nuphar sp.) plant profile
August — The best wood for aquariums; using potting soil in a planted tank; red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) plant profile
September — Reptile heaters cannot be used to heat aquariums; how to prevent a plant’s lower leaves from falling off; Mint Charlie (Micromeria brownei) plant profile
October — Springtail bugs don’t harm aquariums and make good snacks for fish; carbon dioxide systems shouldn’t use air line tubing; Madagascar lace plant (Aponogeton madagascariensis)
November — How to create a mini wetland in your aquarium; how to make Ludwigia bushy; removing a light reflector; Glossostigma elatinoides plant profile
December — Plants that can be grown in shallow substrates; adjusting plants may look like they’re dying; best plants to go with guppies in a pond; Sagittaria subulata var. pusilla plant profile

Reef Aquarist
By J. Charles Delbeek. Questions and answers about reef aquariums.

January — Easy corals that will fill out a tank
February — More challenging corals to keep in an aquarium
March — A brown dusting in a reef tank is a result of too many nutrients
April — Why corals may not grow in a reef aquarium; anemonefish using corals as hosts
May — Why green star polyp corals won’t open up in a reef aquarium
June — Advantages for keeping a sump on a reef tank
July — What could cause a white residue in a reef aquarium
August — Benefits of dosing with a calcium reactor
September — Mantis shrimp shouldn’t have tankmates; how Fungia coral species propagate
October — Methods for controlling Aiptasia
November — How distilled water affects the buffering capacity of aquarium water; vermetid snails taking over a tank
December — Pumps and water flow for seahorse tanks; why new fish die from ich

Adventures in Fish Breeding
By Mike Hellweg. Information on how to breed specific freshwater fish, as well as breeding techniques.

January — Purple kribensis (Pelvicachromis taeniatus)
February — Butterfly goodeid (Ameca splendens)
March — Licorice gourami (Parosphromenus deissneri)
April — Flame tetra (Hyphessobrycon flammeus)
May — Cherry barb (Pundius titteya)
June — Freshwater needlefish (Xenentodon cancila)
July — Panda cory (Corydoras panda)
August — Goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus)
September — Dwarf pencilfish (Nannostomus marginatus)
October — Yellow lab (Labidochromis caeruleus)
November — Bluefin killie (Lucania goodei)
December — T-barb (Puntius lateristriga)

Fish news from around the world.

January — Deep-Sea Coral Reefs Discovered; MASNA Scholarship Awarded
February — Rapid Weight Gain Has Consequences; Noise Pollution Affects Reef Fish
March — Pelvicachromis taeniatus Reproductive; Power Outage at UK Aquarium Kills Fish
April — Rare oarfish washes ashore; electric fish create sounds at Netherlands festival
May — Potential Aquatic Collection Ban in Hawaii; Fish of Lake Malawi; Alcohol Effects on Fish
June — Seven new Starksia Blennies Discovered; Noise Affects Fish Feeding; Dead Sardines Found in a California Harbor
July — Blind Cavefish Sleep Study; Aquarium Fish Photographer Passes Away; Female Cichlids Raise Fry by Themselves
August — Breeding study with Atlantic Mollies in Dark Environments; New Name for Tiger Stingray; Fish Races are Back at the Harmon Tap Room in Tacoma, Washington
September — Counting Coral Reef Fish; Clownfish Hearing Trouble; Colombia’s Approach to Fish Exports
October — Groupers Limit Lionfish Numbers; Facebook Helps Identify 5,000 Fish; San Francisco Considers Tropical Fish Ban
November — Gourami Weaned off Kit Kat Bars; Circadian Systems Studied; Goldfish Survive Four Months Unattended After Earthquake
December — Female Cleaner Fish Watch Weight; Coral Sunscreen; New Boraras Species Described

By David A. Lass. Fishkeepers under the age of 18 have their questions answered.

January — Split tails are nothing to worry about
February — Reasons why you should avoid scribbled boxfish (Ostracion solorensis)
March — How gravel size indirectly affects water quality
April — Ram breeding and parenting
May — Converting freshwater tanks to saltwater
June — Quarantining shrimp that were in a fish store tank that had fish with ich
July — Fish may change color as they get older
August — Sterilizing used tanks
September — Ghost shrimp may need salt
October — Leadership positions in fish shoals can change
November — How to grow lucky bamboo in aquariums
December — A sick gourami may either be egg-bound or constipated

Saltwater Q&A
By Scott W. Michael. Questions and answers about keeping saltwater fish.

January — Why quarantine is imperative in most saltwater fish situations
February — Pros and cons of adding an Aiptasia-eating fish to your reef aquarium
March — How to stock a large saltwater tank; how to breed whitebonnet anemonefish (Amphiprion leucokranos)
April — Longfin bannerfish won’t always work in communities
May — How to cure live rock
June — Differences between glass and acrylic aquariums
July — Sabre squirrelfish (Sargocentron spiniferum) special requirements
August — Seahorse tankmates; if protein skimmers are necessary in fish-only tanks
September — How aquariums benefit the elderly
October — How to keep Hasselt’s bamboo shark (Chiloscyllium hasseltii)
November — How to care for the deep-water heliotrope basslet (Lipogramma klayi)
December — Epaulette sharks (Hemiscyllium spp.) in the aquarium

Fresh Fish
By Jim Walters. Care information on new saltwater fish coming into the hobby.

January — Brachiosaurus blenny (Osmobranchus anolius), Rusty X flame angel hybrid
February — Red candy basslet (Liopropoma carmabi); Kuiter’s leopard wrasse (Macropharyngodon kuiteri)
March — Snow bass (Serranus chionaraia)
April — Magnificent fan goby (Tomiyamichthys sp.); African basslet (Liopropoma africanum)
May — Fontainebleau ricefish (Oryzias woworae); Wrasse blenny (Hemiemblemaria simulus)
June — Yellowtip soldierfish (Myripristis xanthacra); Redstripe pipefish (Dunckerocampus baldwini)
July — Flashing chromis (Chromis flavicauda); Yellow hawkfish (Cirrhitichthys aureus)
August — Axelrod’s clown blenny (Ecsenius axelrodi); Whitecap goby (Lotilia graciliosa)
September — Two Chrysiptera demoiselles (C. tricincta and C. caeruleolineata); Black ear wrasse (Halichoeres melasmapomus)
October — Collecting the Spanish flag grouper (Gonioplectrus hispanus)
November — Tracy’s demoiselle (Chrysiptera traceyi); Yellowspot bandfish (Acanthocepola abbreviata)

In the Fish Room
By David A. Lass. Product reviews.

January — Rolf C. Hagen, Inc. Fluval Pond Filter with UV
February — Tetra Half Moon Aquarium Kit
March — American Marine, Inc. Pinpoint pH Monitor and Controller
April — AquaticLife, LLC. Internal Mini Protein Skimmer 115
May — Hydor Magi-Klean Pump & Accessory Cleaner; ZooMed’s Aqua Cook Aquarium Cooling Fan
June — EverCleanAqua EverClean Filter; Innovative Viewing Systems’ The Portal
July — Fish Heads Inc. Real Reef; Ecological Laboratories’ Microbe-Lift Reef Salt
August — Maglife USA Clean Sweep Betta Tank; AquaticLife’s 100 GPD Deluxe RO Filter
September — ONEdersave Products EcoBio-Planter; Ocean Nutrition Shrimp wafers
October — AA Aquarium, Inc. Internal UV Sterilizer; Hydor Aerating Volcano Ornament
November — AquaMaxx Hang on Back Protein Skimmer; Aqualumin from Geolumin
December — Marineland LED BIO-Wheel Aquarium Kit; Aquatop Digital Heater

Aquatic Maestro
By Paul Spiece. Thoughts on fishkeeping from the former PBS television show host of “Guppies to Groupers.”

January — The basics of plant lighting
February — Teaching kids about keeping fish
March — What makes a fish a fish?
April — Trustworthy sources of fish information
May — What thoughts go into creating fish food
June — Ways to lower nitrates
July — How to identify and manage fish sickness
August — Paul Speice’s fish room
September — What chemicals plants need to get from the water
October — How to “cue” the fish on the “Guppies to Groupers” show
November — Why fish sometimes behave strangely
December — How math affects aquariumkeepers

Sand Mail
By Bob Goemans. Questions and answers about various marine topics.

January — Using UV sterilization during fish quarantine; good-quality live rock; specific gravity levels in quarantine tanks
February — Why you shouldn’t use a protein skimmer during the aquarium cycling process; whether or not to use old activated carbon
March — Tips for moving fish-only-with-live-rock tanks; how to create a simple saltwater tank
April — Why water may be cloudy after adding aragonite solution
May — How to properly dose vinegar or vodka into a reef aquarium
June — How to correctly dose chloroquine phosphate in reef tanks
July — How to deal with polyp problems; how heavy aquariums with deep sandbeds can be
August — Getting fish to eat; tips for moving fish tanks
September — Raising and lowering salinity in aquariums for ich treatments
October — Care and feeding of sea cucumbers
November — Alpheus immaculatus shrimp and their associates
December — Turning a used tank into a reef; should a reader upgrade the lights on an established reef?

Wet Vet
By Mark Mitchell, D.V.M., Ph.D. Questions and answers about fish health and disease.

January — Three feeding strategies used by fish
February — Diagnosing and treating eye problems
March — Medical reasons why a female betta may be resting on the bottom
April — Why viruses are not treatable
May — Fish with dropsy that do not respond to medications may just be overweight
June — Mucus serves as natural protection for fish
July — Causes and treatments for fin rot
August — Why quarantining is important
September — Why a goldfish may be resting on the bottom of the aquarium
October — A swollen abdomen could mean cancer
November — How feeding too much can result in pop-eye
December — Looking at a fish’s health history can help decide what is wrong with it now

Popular Freshwater Tropicals
By Iggy Tavares, Ph.D. Discussion of freshwater fish species and appropriate setups for them.

January — Pearl gourami (Trichogaster leeri)
February — Blackspot barb (Puntius filamentosus)
March — Espei’s pencilfish (Nannostomus espei)
April — Blue lyretail killifish (Fundulopanchax gardneri nigerianus)
May — Forktail blue-eye rainbowfish (Pseudomugil furcatus)
June — Apistogramma macmasteri
July — Copadichromis borleyi
August — Elliot’s cichlid (Thorichthys ellioti)
September — Bentos tetra (Hyphessobrycon bentosi)
October — Banded dwarf loach (Yunnanilus cruciatus)
November — Tanganyikan pearl killifish (Lamprichthys tanganicanus)
December — White Cloud Mountain minnows (Tanichthys albonubes)

Reef Notes
By Vincent Hargreaves, Ph.D. Various reef topics, including species accounts, are discussed.

January — Sources of information for reef tank owners
February — Orangemargin butterflyfish (Prognathodes basabei) profile
March — Squirrelfish and soldierfish that do well in fish-only-with-live-rock (FOWLR) aquariums
April — The benefits of choosing eco-friendly rock
May — All about zoanthids (aka button polyps or carpet anemones)
June — Assessors in the Plesiopidae family
July — Chaetodon butterflies of the reef
August — How coral reefs are exploited and mined outside of the aquarium hobby
September — Protein skimmers and how they work
October — More Chaetodon butterflyfish
November — More Chaetodon butterflyfish
December — Challenging nudibranchs and nudibranch profiles

Freshwater Forum
By Jeffrey C. Howe. Questions and answers about freshwater tanks in general, as well as equipment.

January — Properties of water
February — Heat capacity of water and how heat affects the water
March — Understanding your tap water
April — How well water affects aquarium water’s pH
May — Cloudiness could be a bacterial bloom; how to remove oily surface film from the water surface
June — Which substrates are best for cories and plants; how to use water softeners for aquarium water
July — Understanding water hardness
August — How to alter water hardness
September — How most filters perform all three types of filtration
October — How activated carbon helps with water quality
November — Toxic compounds of the nitrogen cycle
December — Whether or not to increase water hardness; effect of soft well water on aquariums

Species Profile
January — Ritteri anemone (Heteractis magnifica)
February — Goldbelly damsel (Pomacentrus auriventris)
March — Blue tuxedo urchin (Mespilia globulus)
April — Lyretail anthias (Pseudanthias squamipinnis)
May — Euphyllia corals
June — Chalk bass (Serranus tortugarum)
July — Open brain coral (Trachyphyllia geoffroyi)
August — Sixline wrasse (Pseudocheilinus hexataenia); spotted surgeonfish (Ctenochaetus strigosus)
September — Masked goby (Coryphopterus personatus)
October — Harlequin bass (Serranus tigrinus)
November — Sexy anemone shrimp (Thor amboinensis)
December — Turbinaria heronensis

The Aquarist’s Notebook
Quick tips and helpful hints for freshwater and saltwater aquarists.

January — Freshwater algae-eaters
February — How seashells can affect water quality in aquariums
March — Understanding GH and KH
April — Algae identification
May — Five reasons fish Died
June — Carbon dioxide reactors
July — Keeping fish from jumping out of an aquarium
August — Sand swapping
September — Electrical safety
October — Quarantine tanks
November — Securing Java fern
December — Cichlid aggression

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